Table 4: MIDI 1.0 Specification Message Summary

Updated 1995 By the MIDI Manufacturers Association

WARNING: The details of this implementation could dramatically affect compatibility with other products. It is recommended that you consult the official MMA detailed specification for any additional information.

Data Byte(s)
Channel Voice Messages
Note Off event.
This message is sent when a note is released (ended).
(nnnnnnn) is the note number.
(vvvvvvv) is the velocity.
Note On event.
This message is sent when a note is depressed (start).
(nnnnnnn) is the note number.
Polyphonic Key Pressure (Aftertouch).
This message is sent when the pressure (velocity) of a previously triggered note changes.
(nnnnnnn) is the note number.
(vvvvvvv) is the new velocity.
Control Change.
This message is sent when a controller value changes. Controllers include devices such as pedals and levers. Certain controller numbers are reserved for specific purposes. See Channel Mode Messages.
(ccccccc) is the controller number.
(vvvvvvv) is the new value.
1100cccc0pppppppProgram Change.
This message sent when the patch number changes. (ppppppp) is the new program number.
1101nnnn0cccccccChannel Pressure (After-touch).
This message is sent when the channel pressure changes. Some velocity-sensing keyboards do not support polyphonic after-touch. Use this message to send the single greatest velocity (of all the current depressed keys).
(ccccccc) is the channel number.
1110nnnn 0lllllll
Pitch Wheel Change.
This message is sent to indicate a change in the pitch wheel. The pitch wheel is measured by a fourteen bit value. Center (no pitch change) is 2000H. Sensitivity is a function of the transmitter.
(llllll) are the least significant 7 bits.
(mmmmmm) are the most significant 7 bits.
Channel Mode Messages (See also Control Change, above)
Channel Mode Messages.
This the same code as the Control Change (above), but implements Mode control by using reserved controller numbers. The numbers are:

Local Control.
When Local Control is Off, all devices on a given channel will respond only to data received over MIDI. Played data, etc. will be ignored. Local Control On restores the functions of the normal controllers.
c = 122, v = 0: Local Control Off
c = 122, v = 127: Local Control On

All Notes Off.
When an All Notes Off is received, all oscillators will turn off.
c = 123, v = 0: All Notes Off
(See text for description of actual mode commands.)
c = 124, v = 0: Omni Mode Off

c = 125, v = 0: Omni Mode On
c = 126, v = M: Mono Mode On (Poly Off) where M is the number of channels
(Omni Off) or 0 (Omni On)
c = 127, v = 0: Poly Mode On (Mono Off)
(Note: These four messages also cause All Notes Off)

System Common Messages
System Exclusive.
This message makes up for all that MIDI doesn't support. (iiiiiii) is a seven bit Manufacturer's I.D. code. If the synthesizer recognizes the I.D. code as its own, it will listen to the rest of the message (ddddddd). Otherwise, the message will be ignored. System Exclusive is used to send bulk dumps such as patch parameters and other non-spec data. (Note: Real-Time messages ONLY may be interleaved with a System Exclusive.)
11110010 0lllllll
Song Position Pointer.
This is an internal 14 bit register that holds the number of MIDI beats (1 beat= six MIDI clocks) since the start of the song. l is the LSB, m the MSB.
111100110sssssssSong Select.
The Song Select specifies which sequence or song is to be played.
11110110Tune Request.
Upon receiving a Tune Request, all analog synthesizers should tune their oscillators.
11110111End of Exclusive
Used to terminate a System Exclusive dump (see above).
System Real-Time Messages
11111000Timing Clock.
Sent 24 times per quarter note when synchronization is required (see text).
Start the current sequence playing. (This message will be followed with Timing Clocks).
Continue at the point the sequence was Stopped.
Stop the current sequence.
11111110Active Sensing. Use of this message is optional. When initially sent, the receiver will expect to receive another Active Sensing message each 300ms (max), or it will be assume that the connection has been terminated. At termination, the receiver will turn off all voices and return to normal (non-active sensing) operation.
Reset all receivers in the system to power-up status. This should be used sparingly, preferably under manual control. In particular, it should not be sent on power-up.

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